This is my elder son Mathias Lenz Dingman. (http://www.brb.org.uk/masque/index.htm?act=Person&urn=25187) This portrait was created during his fourth year with Birmingham Royal Ballet at which time he was promoted to "First Artist". He is a citizen of the United States of America, files annual income tax here, uses our address as his "permanent" place of residency for US government documents, and returns "home" to visit us.... and his dentist and his eye doctor. His entire professional career, however, has been danced in a foreign country.... in England. That makes him an "expatriate". (Since then, Mathias was promoted to "Soloist" in 2011 and to "First Soloist" in 2012. Obviously, Steve and I are proud parents!)
An expatriate (in abbreviated form, expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing or legal residence. The word comes from the Latin term expatriātus from ex ("out of") and patriā the ablative case of patria ("country, fatherland").
Wikipedia goes on to say: In its broadest sense, an expatriate is any person living in a different country from where he or she is a citizen. In common usage, the term is often used in the context of professionals sent abroad by their companies, as opposed to locally hired staff (who can also be foreigners). The differentiation found in common usage usually comes down to socio-economic factors, so skilled professionals working in another country are described as expatriates, whereas a manual labourer who has moved to another country to earn more money might be labelled an 'immigrant'. There is no set definition and usage does vary depending on context and individual preferences and prejudices.
All three made the same decision.... to leave their homeland for a chance to dance more often, for more money, and for all the other factors that figure into "artistic opportunities". The titles are different only from point of view … from which country the decision is considered.